The Monarchs of Ireland
The following is a traditional list of supposed Ard Rí or High Kings of Ireland, starting from the Milesian conquest. It should be read with a sceptical eye for several reasons . . .


Heber and Heremon

1700 B.C.

Heber and Heremon were the sons of Milesius of Spain and shortly after the death of their father, along with their six brothers, with a numerous fleet well manned and equipped, set forth from Breoghan's Tower or Brigantia (now Corunna) in Galicia, in Spain, and sailed prosperously to the coasts of Ireland or lnis-Fail, where they met many difficulties and various chances before they could land: occasioned by the diabolical arts, sorceries, and enchantments used by the Tuatha-de-Danann, to obstruct their landing; for, by their magic art, they enchanted the island so as to appear to the Milesians or Clan-na-Milé in the form of a Hog, and no way to come at it (whence the island, among the many other names it had before, was called "Muc-Inis or "The Hog Island"); and withal raised so great a storm, that the Milesian fleet was thereby totally dispersed and many of them cast away, wherein five of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius, lost their lives. That part of the fleet commanded by Heber, Heremon, and Amergin (the three surviving, brothers), and Heber Donn, son of Ir (one of the brothers lost in the storm), overcame all opposition, landed safe, fought and routed the three Tuatha-de Danann Kings at Slieve-Mis, and thence pursued and overtook them at Tailten, where another bloody battle was fought; wherein the three (Tuatha-de-Danann) Kings and their Queens were slain, and their army utterly routed and destroyed: so that they could never after give any opposition to the Clan-na-Milé in their new conquest; who, having thus sufficiently avenged the death of their great uncle Ithe (who had been slain by the inhabitants of Ireland), gained the possession of the country foretold them by Cachear, some ages past. Heber and Heremon, the chief leading men remaining of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius aforesaid, divided the kingdom between them (allotting a proportion of land to their brother Amergin, who was their Arch-priest, Druid, or magician; and to their nephew Heber Donn, and to the rest of their chief commanders), and became jointly the first of one hundred and eighty-three Kings or sole Monarchs of the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scottish Race, that ruled and governed Ireland, successively, for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years from the first year of their reign), Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred, to their submission to the Crown of England in the person of King Henry the Second; who, being also of the Milesian Race by Maude, his mother, was lineally descended from Fergus Mór MacEarca, first King of Scotland, who was descended from the said Heremon - so that the succession may be truly said to continue in the Milesian Blood from before Christ one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present time.




Heber and Heremon reigned jointly one year only, when, upon a difference between their ambitious wives, they quarrelled and fought a battle at Ardeath or Geshill (Geashill, near Tullamore in the King's County), where Heber was slain by Heremon; and, soon after, Amergin, who claimed an equal share in the government, was, in another battle fought between them, likewise slain by Heremon. Thus, Heremon became sole Monarch, and made a new division of the land amongst his comrades and friends, viz.: the south part, now called Munster, he gave to his brother Heber's four sons, Er, Orba, Feron, and Fergna; the north part, now Ulster, he gave to Ir's only son Heber Donn; the east part or Coigeadh, Galian, now called Leinster, be gave to Criomthann-sciath-bheil, one of his commanders; and the west part, now called Connaught, Heremon gave to Un-Mac-Oigge, another of his commanders; allotting a part of Munster to Lughaidh (the son of Ithe, the first Milesian discoverer of Ireland), amongst his brother Heber's sons. From these three brothers, Heber, Ir, and Heremon (Amergin dying without issue), are descended all the Milesian Irish of Ireland and Scotland, viz.: from Heber, the eldest brother, the provincial Kings of Munster (of whom thirty-eight were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and most of the nobility and gentry of Munster, and many noble families in Scotland, are descended. From Ir, the second brother, all the provincial Kings of Ulster (of whom twenty-six were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and all the ancient nobility and gentry of Ulster, and many noble families in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, derive their pedigrees; and, in Scotland, the Clan-na-Rory - the descendants of an eminent man, named Ruadhri or Roderick, who was Monarch of Ireland for seventy years (viz., from Before Christ 288 to 218). From Heremon, the youngest of the three brothers, were descended one hundred and fourteen sole Monarchs of Ireland: the provincial Kings and Hermonian nobility and gentry of Leinster, Connaught, Meath, Orgiall, Tirowen, Tirconnell, and Clan-na-boy; the Kings of Dalriada; all the Kings of Scotland from Fergus Mór MacEarea, down to the Stuarts; and the Kings and Queens of England from Henry the Second down to tile present time. The issue of Ithe is not accounted among the Milesian Irish or Clan-na-Milé, as not being descended from Milesius, but from his uncle Ithe; of whose posterity there were also some Monarchs of Ireland and many provincial or half provincial Kings of Munster: that country upon its first division being allocated to the sons of Heber and to Lughaidh, son of Ithe, whose posterity continued there accordingly.




Joint rule by Muimhne, Luighne, and Laighne, sons of Heremon.







1681 B.C.

Joint rule of four sons of Heber for one-half of a year. They were slain by Irial Faidh, son of Heremon.








Nuadhat Neacht

1681 B.C.

Ruled for one-half a year.


Irial Faidh

1680 B.C.

Son of Heremon. This was a very learned King; could foretell things to come; and caused much of the country to be cleared of the ancient forests. He likewise built seven royal palaces, viz., Rath Ciombaoith, Rath Coincheada, Rath Mothuig, Rath Buirioch, Rath Luachat, Rath Croicne, and Rath Boachoill. He won four remarkable battles over his enemies: - Ard Inmath, at Teabtha, where Stirne, the son of Dubh, son of Fomhar, was slain; the second battle was at Teanmhuighe, against the Fomhoraice, where Eichtghe, their leader, was slain; the third was the battle of Loch Muighe, where Lugrot, the son of Moghfeibhis, was slain; and the fourth was the battle of Cuill Martho, where the four sons of Heber were defeated. Irial died in the second year after this battle, having reigned 10 years, and was buried at Magh Muagh.



1670 B.C.

Son of Irial Faidh. Slain by Conmaol, the son of Heber Fionn, at the battle of Soirrean, in Leinster, B.C. 1650. This also was a learned King, he wrote with his own hand the History of the Gaels (or Gadelians); in his reign seven large woods were cleared and much advance made in the practice of agriculture.



1650 B.C.

The fifth and youngest son of Heber. He was the first king of Ireland from Munster. Having been thirty years in the sovereignty of Ireland, fell, in the battle of Aenach Macha, by Tighernmas.



1620 B.C.

Son of Follach (Follaig) (Foll-Aich), son of Eithrial (11). Reigned 77 years; according to Keating, he reigned but 50 years; he fought twenty-seven battles with the followers of the family of Heber Fionn, all which he gained. In his reign gold was mined near the Liffey, and skilfully worked by Inchadhan. This King also made a law that each grade of society should be known by the number of colours in its wearing apparel: - the clothes of a slave should be of one colour; those of a soldier of two; the dress of a commanding officer to be of three colours; a gentleman's dress, who kept a table for the free entertainment of strangers, to be of four colours; five colours to be allowed to the nobility (the chiefs); and the King, Queen, and Royal Family, as well as the Druids, historians, and other learned men to wear six colours. This King died, B.C. 1543, on the Eve of 1st of November, with two-thirds of the people of Ireland, at Magh Sleaght (or Field of Adoration), in the county of Leitrim, as he was adoring the Sun-God, Crom Cruach (a quo Macroom). Historians say this Monarch was the first who introduced image worship in Ireland.


Eochaidh Eadghadhach

1536 B.C.

Son of Daire. He was called Eochaidh Eadghadhach because it was by him the variety of colour was first put on clothes in Ireland, to distinguish the honour of each by his raiment, from the lowest to the highest. Thus was the distinction made between them: one colour in the clothes of slaves; two in the clothes of soldiers; three in the clothes of goodly heroes, or young lords of territories; six in the clothes of ollavs; seven in the clothes of kings and queens. Killed by Cearmna, son of Ebric, in the battle of Teamhair Tara.


Cearmna Finn

1532 B.C.

Joint rule by two sons of Ebric, son of Heber, son of Ir, son of Milesius. They divided Ireland between them into two parts: Sobhairce resided in the north, at Dun Sobhairce; and Cearmna in the south, at Dun Cearmna. These were the first kings of Ireland of the race of Ir.




Eochaidh Faebhar Ghlas

1492 B.C.

Son of Conmael (12).


Fiacha Labhrainne

1472. B.C.

Descended from Heremon, slew Eochaidh Faobharglas, of the line of Heber, at the battle of Carman. During his reign all the inhabitants of Scotland were brought in subjection to the Irish Monarchy. Fiacha at length (B.C. 1448) fell in the battle of Bealgadain, by the hands of Eochaidh Mumho, the son of Moefeibhis, of the race of Heber Fionn.


Eochaidh Mumho

1448 B.C.

Son of Mofebis (Mafebbis), son of Eochaidh Faebhar Ghlas (17).


Aengus Olmucadha

1427 B.C.

Son of Fiacha Labhrainne. In his reign the Picts again refused to pay the tribute imposed on them 250 years before, by Heremon, but this Monarch went with a strong army into Alba and in thirty pitched battles overcame them and forced them to pay the required tribute. Aongus was at length slain by Enna, in the battle of Carman, B.C. 1409.


Enna Airgtheach

1409 B.C.

Son of Eochaidh Mumho (19).



1382 B.C.

Son of Maen (Moen), son of Aengus Olmucadha (20). Slain, B.C. 1357, by Sedne (or Seadhna), of the Line of Ir.



1357 B.C.

Son of Art, son of Airtri, son of Eibhric, son of Heber, son of Ir. Slew Rotheacta and, mounting his throne, became Monarch. It was during his reign that the Dubhloingeas or "pirates of the black fleet" came to plunder the royal palace of Cruachan in Roscommon, and the King was slain, in an encounter with those plunderers, by his own son and successor, who mistook his father for a pirate chief whom he had slain and whose helmet he wore.


Fiacha Fionn Scothach

1352 B.C.

Son of Sedna (23). So called from the abundance of white flowers with which every plain in Erinn abounded during his reign; was born in the palace of Rath-Cruachan, B.C. 1402; and slain, B.C. 1332, in the 20th year of his reign, by Munmoin, of the Line of Heber.



1332 B.C.

Son of Cas Clothach, son of Fear Arda, son of Roitheachtaigh (22), son of Rossa, son of Glas, son of Nuadha, son of Eochaidh Faebhar Ghlas (17). Died of the plague.



1327 B.C.

Son of Muineamhon (25). He was the first king that ordered his nobility to wear gold rings on their fingers,


Eochaidh Ollamh Fodhla

1317 B.C.

Son of Ficha Finscothach (24). It was this Monarch who first instituted the Feis Teamhrach (or "Parliament of Tara"), which met about the time called "Samhain" (or 1st of November) for making laws, reforming general abuses, revising antiquities, genealogies, and chronicles, and purging them from all corruption and falsehood that might have been foisted into them since the last meeting. This Triennial Convention was the first Parliament of which we have any record on the face of the globe; and was strictly observed from its first institution to A.D. 1172; and, even as late as A.D. 1258, we read in our native Annals of an Irish Parliament, at or near Newry. He built Mur Ollamhan at Teamhair (which means "Ollamh's fort at Tara"); he also appointed a chieftain over every cantred and a brughaidh over every townland. According to some chroniclers, "Ulster" was first called Uladh, from Ollamh Fodhla. His posterity maintained themselves in the Monarchy of Ireland for 250 years, without any of the two other septs of Heber and Heremon intercepting them. He died at an advanced age at his own Mur (or house) at Tara, leaving five sons.



1277 B.C.

Son of Ollamh Fodhla (27). Died of the plague.



1257 B.C.

Son of Ollamh Fodhla. Died in the banqueting hall at Tara.


Gedhe Ollghothach

1240 B.C.

Son of Ollamh Fodhla (27).


Fiacha Finnailches

1230 B.C.

Son of Finnachta (28).



1208 B.C.

Son of Gedhe Ollghothach (30).



1196 B.C.

Son of Slanoll (29).


Sírna Saoghalach

1180 B.C.

Son of Dian, son of Deman. He obtained the name "Saoghalach" on account of his extraordinary long life; slain, B.C 1030, at Aillin, by Rotheachta, of the line of Heber Fionn, who usurped the Monarchy.



1030 B.C.

Son of Roan, son of Failbhe, son of Cas Ceadchaingneach, son of Faildeargdoid (26).


Elim Oillfinshneachta

1023 B.C.

Son of Roitheachtaigh (35).



1022 B.C.

Son of Olioll Olchain, son of Sirna (34). Killed by Art Imleach, of the Line of Heber Fionn, at Moighe Muadh, B.C. 1013.


Art Imleach

1013 B.C.

Son of Elim Oillfinshneachta, (36).


Nuadhat Finnfail

1001. B.C.

Son of Giallchaidh (37). Slain by Breasrioghacta, his successor, B.C. 961



961 B.C.

Son of Art Imleach (38)


Eochaidh Apthach

952 B.C.

Son of Fionn, son of Oilill, son of Flann Ruadh, son of Rothlan, som of Mairtine, son of Sithceann, son of Riaghlan, son of Eoinbhric, son of Lughaidh, son of Ioth, son of Breoghan.



951 B.C.

Son of Blatha, son of Labraidh, son of Cairbre, son of Ollam Fodla (27).


Sedna Innarraigh

929 B.C.

Son of Breas (40). The first who, in Ireland, enlisted his soldiers in pay and under good discipline. Before his time, they had no other pay than what they could gain from their enemies.


Simon Breac

909 B.C.

Son of Aedhan Glas, son of Nuadhat Finnfail (39). He inhumanly caused his predecessor to be torn asunder by tying his limbs to four horses; but, after a reign of six years, he met with a like death, by order of Duach Fionn, son to the murdered King, B.C. 903.


Duach Finn

903 B.C.

Son of Sedna Innarraigh (43)


Muireadhach Bolgrach

893 B.C.

Son of Simon Breac (44)


Enda Dearg

892 B.C.

Son of Duach Finn (45). In the twelfth year of his reign he died suddenly, with most of his retinue, adoring their false gods at Sliabh Mis.


Lughaidh Iardonn

880 B.C.

Son of Enda Dearg (47).



871 B.C.

Son of Finn, son of Bratha.


Eochaidh Uaircheas

855 B.C.

Son of Lughaidh Iardonn (48).


Eochaidh Fiadhmuine

843 B.C.

Joint rule by two sons of Congall Cosrach, son of Duach Teamrach, son of Muireadhach Bolgrach (46). Eochaidh ruled the south, Conaing the north.


Conaing Begeaglach


Lughaidh Laimhdhearg

838 B.C.

Son of Eochaidh Uaircheas (50).


Conaing Begeaglach

831 B.C.

Son of Congal.



811 B.C.

Son of Lughaidh Laimhdhearg (52), son of Eochaidh Uaircheas (50).


Fiacha Tolgrach

805 B.C.

Son of Muireadhach (46)


Oilioll Finn

795 B.C.

Son of Art (54)



784 B.C.

Son of Oilioll Finn (56)



777 B.C.

Son Siorlamh, son of Fionn, son of Bratha, son of Labraidh, son of Cairbre, son of Ollamh Fodhla (27). After a reign of 30 years, was slain by Duach Ladhrach. He left four sons: - 1. Fiontan, whose son, Ciombaoth, was the 63rd Monarch; 2. Diomain, whose son, Dithorba, became the 62nd Monarch; 3. Badhum, who was father of Aodh Ruadh, the 61st Monarch, who was drowned at Eas Ruadh (or Assaroe), now Ballyshannon, in the county of Donegal, and grandfather of Macha Mongruadh, or "Macha of the Golden Tresses," the 64th Monarch, and the only queen Ireland ever has had, who laid the foundation of the Royal Palace of Emania, in the county of Armagh, where her consort Cimbath, died of the plague; the fourth son of Argeadmar was Fomhar.


Duach Ladhgrach

747 B.C.

Son of Fiacha Tolgrach (55).


Lughaidh Laighdhe

737 B.C.

Son of Eochaidh (57).


Aedh Ruadh


Aedh Ruadh, son of Badharn, after having been seven years in the sovereignty of Ireland, left the sovereignty to Dithorba, son of Deman, after having spent the first period himself, for there were injunctions upon him to resign it to Dithorba at the end of seven years; and on Dithorba, also, to resign it to Cimbaeth at the end of seven years more; and so in succession to the end of their reigns lives. The reason that they made this agreement respecting the sovereignty was, because they were the sons of three brothers. Thus they rotated the Monarchy between them, each in turn resigning every seven years, each of them serving three terms.






Macha Mongruadh (Queen)

660 B.C.

Daughter of Aedh Ruadh (61). Macha, daughter of Aedh Ruadh said that her father's turn to the sovereignty was her's. Dithorba and Cimbaeth said that they would not give the sovereignty to a woman. A battle was fought between them; Macha defeated them, and expelled Dithorba, with his sons, into Connaught, so that he was slain in Corann. She afterwards took to her Cimbaeth as husband, and gave him the sovereignty. She afterwards proceeded alone into Connaught, and brought the sons of Dithorba with her in fetters to Ulster, by virtue of her strength, and placed them in great servitude, until they should erect the fort of Eamhain, that it might always be the chief city of Uladh Ulster.


Reachtaidh Righdhearg

653 B.C.

Son of Lughaidh Laighdhe (60). was called "Righ-dearg" or the red king, for having a hand in a woman's blood: having slain queen Macha of the line of Ir, and, the only woman that held the Monarchy of Ireland. He was a warlike Prince and fortunate in his undertakings. He went into Scotland with a powerful army to reduce to obedience the Pictish nation, then growing refractory in the payment of their yearly tribute to the Monarchs of Ireland; which having performed, he returned, and, after twenty years' reign, was slain in battle by his Heremonian successor.


Úgaine Mor

633 B.C.

Son of Eochaidh Buadhach, son of Duach Ladhgrach (59). This Ugaine was called Mór on account of his extensive dominions, - being sovereign of all the Islands of Western Europe. Was married to Cæsair, daughter to the King of France, and by her had issue - twenty-two sons and three daughters. In order to prevent these children encroaching on each other he divided the Kingdom into twenty-five portions, allotting to each his (or her) distinct inheritance. By means of this division the taxes of the country were collected during the succeeding 300 years. All the sons died without issue except two, viz: - Laeghaire Lorc, ancestor of all the Leinster Heremonians; and Cobthach Caolbhreagh, from whom the Heremonians of Leath Cuinn, viz., Meath, Ulster, and Conacht derive their pedigree. In the early ages the Irish Kings made many military expeditions into foreign countries. Ugaine Mór, called by O'Flaherty, in his Ogygia, "Hugonius Magnus," was contemporary with Alexander the Great; and is stated to have sailed with a fleet into the Mediterranean, landed his forces in Africa, and also attacked Sicily; and having proceeded to Gaul, was married to Cæsair, daughter of the King of the Gauls. Hugonius was buried at Cruachan. The Irish sent, during the Punic wars, auxiliary troops to their Celtic Brethren, the Gauls; who in their alliance with the Carthaginians under Hannibal, fought against the Roman armies in Spain and Italy. Ugaine was at length, B.C. 593, slain by Badhbhchadh, who failed to secure the fruits of his murder - the Irish Throne, as he was executed by order of Laeghaire Lorc, the murdered Monarch's son, who became the 68th Monarch.



593 B.C.

Was King for a day and a half when he was slain by Laeghaire Lorc, son of Ugaine Mor, in revenge for his father.


Laeghaire Lorc

593 B.C.

Son of Ugaine Mor (66). Having been two years in the sovereignty of Ireland, was killed by Cobhthach Cael Breagh, at Carman (Wexford).


Cobhthach Cael Breagh

591 B.C.

Son of Ugaine Mor (66), and brother of Laeghaire Lorc. It is said, that, to secure the Throne, he assassinated his brother Laeghaire; after a long reign he was at length slain by Maion, his nephew, B.C. 541.


Labhraidh Loingseach

541 B.C.

Son of Oilioll Aine, son of Laeghaire Lorc (68). Labhraidh is said to have had the ears of a horse. So much was his embarrassment that he had his hair cut only once a year and immediately slew the barber lest his secret became known. One year he selected a youth to cut his hair, who so entreated the king not to kill him that Labhraidh spared his life on condition that he never reveal the secret. The stress of keeping the king's secret so troubled the boy that he fell ill. His mother sent for a druid whose wisdom was such that he was able to determine that the cause of the illness was a terrible secret that could not be told. He told the boy to go to a deep wood and whisper the secret to a tree in order to relieve himself of the burdon. This the boy did and immediately felt better. Some time later, a famous harper felled the tree to create a new harp for himself. Summoned to court, when asked to play a tune for the king, instead of notes, the harp sang "King Labhraidh has horses' ears" and the secret was out.


Melghe Molbhthach

522 B.C.

Son of Cobhthach Cael (69). Having been seventeen years in the sovereignty of Ireland, fell in the battle of Claire, by Modhcorb. When his grave was digging, Loch Melghe burst forth over the land in Cairbre, so that it was named from him.



505 B.C.

Son of Cobhthach Caemh, son of Reachtaidh Righdhearg (65). Having been seven years in the sovereignty of Ireland, was slain by Aengus Ollamh.


Aenghus Ollamh

498 B.C.

Son of Oilioll, son of Labhraidh Loingseach (70). Slain by Irereo, son of Melghe



480 B.C.

Son of Melghe Molbhthach (71)



473 B.C.

Son of Modhcorb (72).


Connla Caemh

462 B.C.

Son of Irero (74).


Oilioll Caisfhiaclach

442 B.C.

Son of Connla Caemh (76).



417 B.C.

Son of Fearcorb (75).


Eochaidh Ailtleathan

413 B.C.

Son of Oilioll Caisfhiaclach (77)


Fearghus Fortamhail

395 B.C.

Son of Breasal Breac.


Aenghus Tuirmheach Teamhrach

384 B.C.

His son, Fiacha Firmara (so called from being exposed in a small boat on the sea) was ancestor of the Kings of Dalriada and Argyle in Scotland. This Aongus was slain at Tara (Teamhrach). He was called Aenghus Tuirmheach because the nobility of the race of Eireamhon are traced to him.


Conall Collamhrach

325 B.C.

Son of Ederscel Teamhrah, son of Eochaidh Ailtleathan (79)


Nia Sedhamain

319 B.C.

Son of Adhamair (78). In his time the wild deer were, through the sorcery and witchcraft of his mother, usually driven home with the cows, and tamely suffered themselves to be milked every day.


Enna Aighneach

312 B.C.

Son of Aenghus Tuirmeach (81). Of a very bountiful disposition, and exceedingly munificent in his donations. This King lost his life by the hands of Criomthan Cosgrach.


Crimhthann Cosgrach

292 B.C.

Son of Feidhlimidh, son of Fearghus Fortamhail.



288 B.C.

From him the "Clan-na-Rory" were so called. He left, amongst other children - 1. Bresal Bodhiobha, and 2. Congall Clareineach, who were respectively the 88th and the 90th Monarchs; 3. Conragh, the father of the 105th Monarch Eiliomh; 4. Fachna Fathach, the 92nd Monarch, who, by his wife Neasa was father of Conor; 5. Ros Ruadh, who by his wife Roigh, the father of the celebrated Fergus Mór; and 6. Cionga, the ancestor of the heroic Conal Cearnach, from whom are descended O'Moore, MacGuinness, M'Gowan, and several other powerful families in Ulster and Conacht.



218 B.C.

Son of Nia Sedhamain (83).


Breasal Boidhiobhadh

209 B.C.

Son of Rudhraighe (86). Brother of Congal (90).


Lughaidh Luaighne

198 B.C.

Son of Innatmar (87).


Congal Claroineach

183 B.C.

Son of Rudhraighe (86).


Duach Dallta Deadhadh

168 B.C.

Son of Cairbre Lusc, son of Lughaidh Luaighne (89). Except for Crimthann (125) the last of thirty-three Monarchs of the line of Heber that ruled the Kingdom; and but one more of them came to the Monarchy - namely, Brian Boroimhe, the thirty-first generation down from this Duach, who pulled out his younger brother Deadha's eyes (hence the epithet Dalladh, "blindness," applied to Deadha) for daring to come between him and the throne.


Fachtna Fathach

158 B.C.

Son of Rossa, son of Rudhraighe (86).


Eochaidh Feidhleach

142 B.C.

Son of Finn, son of Finnlogha, son of Roighnen Ruadh, son of Easamasn Easmhna, son of Blathacht, son of Labraidh Lorc, son of Enna Aighneach (84). His daughter Maeve was the first wife of Conor Mac Nessa, King of Ulster and later Queen of Connacht. m Clothfionn, dau. of Eochaidh Uchtleathan, who was a very virtuous lady. By him she had three children at a birth - Breas, Nar, and Lothar (the Fineamhas), who were slain at the battle of Dromchriadh; after their death, a melancholy settled on the Monarch, hence his name "Feidhlioch." This Monarch caused the division of the Kingdom by Ugaine Mór into twenty-five parts, to cease; and ordered that the ancient Firvolgian division into Provinces should be resumed, viz., Two Munsters, Leinster, Conacht, and Ulster. He also divided the government of these Provinces amongst his favourite courtiers: - Conacht he divided into three parts between Fiodhach, Eochaidh Allat, and Tinne, son of Conragh, son of Ruadhri Mór, of the Line of Ir; Ulster (Uladh) he gave to Feargus, the son of Leighe; Leinster he gave to Ros, the son of Feargus Fairge; and the two Munsters he gave to Tighernach Teadhbheamach and Deagbadah. After this division of the Kingdom, Eochaidh proceeded to erect a Royal Palace in Conacht; this he built on Tinne's government in a place called Druin-na-n Druagh, now Craughan (from Craughan Crodhearg, Maedhbh's mother, to whom she gave the palace), but previously, Rath Eochaidh. About the same time he bestowed his daughter the Princess Maedhbh on Tinne, whom he constituted King of Conacht; Maedhbh being hereditary Queen of that Province. After many years reign Tinne was slain by Maceacht (or Monaire) at Tara. After ten years' undivided reign, Queen Maedhbh married Oilioll Mór, son of Ros Ruadh, of Leinster, to whom she bore the seven Maine; Oilioll Mór was at length slain by Conall Cearnach, who was soon after killed by the people of Conacht. Maedhbh was at length slain by Ferbhuidhe, the son of Conor MacNeasa (Neasa was his mother); but in reality this Conor was the son of Fachtna Fathach, son of Cas, son of Ruadhri Mór, of the Line of Ir. This Monarch, Eochaidh, died at Tara, B.C. 130.


Eochaidh Aireamh

130 B.C.

Brother of Eochaidh Feidhleach (93). Having been fifteen years in the sovereignty of Ireland, was burned by Sighmall, at Freamhainn.



115 B.C.

Son of Eoghan, son of Iar, son of Oilioll.


Clann Eimhir Finn


Reigned jointly for one-half year.


Nuadha Neacht

110 B.C.

Son of Sedna Sithbhaic.


Conaire Mor

109 B.C.

Son of Ederscel (95). It was in the reign of Conaire that the sea annually cast its produce ashore, at Inbhear Colptha. Great abundance of nuts were annually found upon the Boinn Boyne and the Buais during his time. The cattle were without keepers in Ireland in his reign, on account of the greatness of the peace and concord. His reign was not thunder producing or stormy, for the wind did not take a hair off the cattle from the middle of Autumn to the middle of Spring. Little but the trees bent from the greatness of their fruit during his time.


Lughaidh Sriabh nDearg

34 B.C.

Son of Breas-Nar-Lothar, son of Eochaidh Feidhleach (93). He entered into an alliance with the King of Denmark, whose daughter, Dearborguill, he obtained as his wife; he killed himself by falling on his sword. Other annalists claim he died of grief.


Conchobhar Abhradhruadh

8 B.C.

Son of Finn File, son of Rossa Ruadh, son of Fearghus Fairrghe, son of Nuadha Neacht (96).


Crimhthann Niadhnair

7 B.C.

Son of Lughaidh Sriabh nDearg (98). Crimthann's death was occasioned by a fall from his horse. Was married to Nar-Tath-Chaoch, dau. of Laoch, son of Daire, who lived in the land of the Picts (Scotland). Crimthann Niadh Nar: This Monarch and Conaire Mór (or Conary the Great), the 97th Monarch of Ireland, respectively made expeditions to Britain and Gaul; and assisted the Picts and Britains in their wars with the Romans. Crimthann was married to Bainé, daughter of the King of Alba, and the mother of Feredach Fionn Feachtnach. O'Flaherty in the Ogygia says, "Naira, the daughter of Loich, the son of Dareletus of the northern Picts of Britain, was Crimthann's Queen, after whom, I suppose, he was called Nia-Nair." This Crimthann died at his fortress, called "Dun-Crimthann" (at Bin Edar now the Hill of Howth), after his return from an expedition against the Romans in Britain, from which he brought to Ireland various spoils: amongst other things, a splendid war chariot, gilded and highly ornamented; golden-hilted swords and shields, embossed with silver; a table studded with three hundred brilliant gems; a pair of grey hounds coupled with a splendid silver chain estimated to be worth one hundred cumal ("cumal:" Irish, a maid servant), or three hundred cows; together with a great quantity of other precious articles. In this Crimthann's reign the oppression of the Plebeians by the Milesians came to a climax: during three years the oppressed Attacotti saved their scanty earnings to prepare a sumptuous death-feast, which, after Crimthann's death, was held at a place called "Magh Cro" (or the Field of Blood), supposed to be situated near Lough Conn in the county of Mayo. To this feast they invited the provincial Kings, nobility, and gentry of the Milesian race in Ireland, with a view to their extirpation; and, when the enjoyment was at its height, the Attacots treacherously murdered almost all their unsuspecting victims. They then set up a king of their own tribe, a stranger named Cairbre (the 101st Monarch of Ireland), who was called "Cean-Cait" from the cat-headed shape of his head: the only king of a stranger that ruled Ireland since the Milesians first arrived there.


Cairbre Cinncait

10 A.D.

Became King after he had killed the nobility, except a few who escaped from the massacre, in which the nobles were murdered by the Aitheach Tuatha. Three nobles escaped: Fearadhach Finnfeachtnach, from whom are sprung all race of Conn of the Hundred Battles; Tibraide Tireach, from whom are the Dal Araidhe; and Corb Olum, from whom are the kings of the Eoghanachta, in Munster. And as to these, it was in their mothers' wombs they escaped. Baine, daughter of the king of Alba, was the mother of Fearadhach Finnfeachtnach; Cruife, daughter of the king of Britain, was the mother of Corb Olum; and Aine, daughter of the king of Saxony, was the mother of Tibraide Tireach.


Fearadhach Finnfeachtnach

15 A.D.

Son of Crimhthann Niadhnair (100). The epithet "feachtnach" was applied to this Monarch because of his truth and sincerity. In his reign lived Moran, the son of Maom, a celebrated Brehon, or Chief Justice of the Kingdom; it is said that he was the first who wore the wonderful collar called Iodhain Morain; this collar possessed a wonderful property: - if the judge who wore it attempted to pass a false judgment it would immediately contract, so as nearly to stop his breathing; but if he reversed such false sentence the collar would at once enlarge itself, and hang loose around his neck. This collar was also caused to be worn by those who acted as witnesses, so as to test the accuracy of their evidence. This Monarch, Feredach, died a natural death at the regal city at Tara. Good was Ireland during his time. The seasons were right tranquil. The earth brought forth its fruit; fishful its river mouths; milkful the kine; heavy headed the woods.


Fiatach Finn

37 A.D.

From whom the Dal hFhiatach are named. Son of Daire, son of Dluthach, son of Deitsin, son of Eochaidh, son of Sin.


Fiacha Finnfolaidh

40 A.D.

Son of Fearadhach Finnfeachtnach (102). Reigned 17 years, and was slain by Eiliomh MacConrach, of the Race of Ir, who succeeded him on the throne. This Fiacha was married to Eithne, daughter of the King of Alba; whither, being near her confinement at the death of her husband, she went, and was there delivered of a son, who was named Tuathal.



57 A.D.

Son of Rossa Ruadh, son of Ruadhraighe (86). Having been twenty years in the sovereignty of Ireland, was slain in the battle of Aichill, by Tuathal Teachtmhar


Tuathal Teachtmhar

77 A.D.

Son of Fiacha Finnfolaidh (104). When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, fron each of the four divisions or provinces Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground which was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) hogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106. This Monarch erected Royal Palace at Tailtean; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), to which were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed. Tuathal married Baine, the dau. of Sgaile Balbh, King of England. It is worthy of remark that Tacitus, in his "Life of Agricola," states that one of the Irish princes, who was an exile from his own country, waited on Agricola, who was then the Roman general in Britain, to solicit his support in the recovery of the kingdom of Ireland; for that, with one of the Roman legions and a few auxiliaries, Ireland could be subdued. This Irish prince was probably Tuathal Teachtmar, who was about that time in Alba or (Caledonia). Tuathal afterwards became Monarch of Ireland, and the Four Masters place the first year of his reign at A.D. 76; and as Agricola with the Roman legions carried on the war against the Caledonians about A.D. 75 to 78, the period coincides chronologically with the time Tuathal Teachtmar was in exile in North Britain; and he might naturally be expected to apply to the Romans for aid to recover his sovereignty as heir to the Irish Monarchy.



107 A.D.

Son of Rochraidhe, son of Cathbhadh, son of Giallchaidh Fionn. Having been four years king over Ireland, he was slain by Feidhlimidh Rechtmhar.


Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar

111 A.D.

Son of Tuathal Teachtmhar (106). He was so called as being a maker of excellent wholesome laws, among which he established with all firmness that of "Retaliation;" kept to it inviolably; and by that means preserved the people in peace, quiet, plenty, and security during his time. He reigned nine years; and, after all his pomp and greatness, died of thirst, A.D. 119. He married Ughna, dau. of the King of Denmark.


Cathaeir Mor

120 A.D.

Son of Feidhlimidh Firurghlais, son of Cormac Gealta Gaoth, son of Nis Corb, son of Cu Corb, son of Mogh Corb, son of Conchubhar, son of Seadna Siothbac, son of Lughaidh Loithfhionn, son of Breasal Breac.


Conn Ceadcathach (or Conn of the Hundred Battles)

123 A.D.

Son of Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar (108). This Conn was so called from hundreds of battles by him fought and won: viz., sixty battles against Cahir Mór, King of Leinster and the 109th Monarch of Ireland, whom he slew and succeeded in the Monarchy; one hundred battles against the Ulsterians; and one hundred more in Munster against Owen Mór (or Mogha Nua-Dhad), their King, who, notwithstanding, forced the said Conn to an equal division of the Kingdom with him. He had two brothers - 1. Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart, 2. Fiacha Suidhe, who, to make way for themselves, murdered two of their brother's sons named Conla Ruadh and Crionna; but they were by the third son Art Eanfhear banished, first into Leinster, and then into Munster, where they lived near Cashel. They were seated at Deici Teamhrach (now the barony of Desee in Meath), whence they were expelled by the Monarch Cormac Ulfhada, son of Art; and, after various wanderings, they went to Munster where Oilioll Olum, who was married to Sadhbh, daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles, gave them a large district of the present county of Waterford, a part of which is still called Na-Deiseacha, or the baronies of Desies. They were also given the country comprised in the present baronies of Clonmel, Upper-Third, and Middle-Third, in the co. Tipperary, which they held till the Anglo-Norman Invasion. From Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart decended O'Nowlan or Nolan of Fowerty (or Foharta), in Lease (or Leix), and Saint Bridget; and from Fiacha Suidhe are O'Dolan, O'Brick of Dunbrick, and O'Faelan of Dun Faelan, near Cashel. Conn of the Hundred Battles had also three daughters: 1. Sadhbh (or Sabina), who m. first, MacNiadh, after whose death she m. Oilioll Olum, King of Munster. 2. Maoin; and 3. Sarah (or Sarad), m. to Conan MacMogha Laine. Conn reigned 35 years; but was at length barbarously slain by Tiobraidhe Tireach, son of Mal, son of Rochruidhe, King of Ulster. This murder was committed in Tara when Conn chanced to be alone and unattended by his guards; the assassins were fifty ruffians, disguised as women, whom the King of Ulster employed for the purpose.



158 A.D.

Son of Modh Lamha, son of Lughaidh Allthach, son of Cairbre Cromcheann, son of Daire Dornmhar, son of Cairbre Fionnmhor, son of Conaire Mor (97). This Conaire married Saraid, daughter of Conn (110) and had three sons, Cairbre Musc, from whom the Muscraighe are called; Cairbre Baschaein, from whom are the Baiscnigh, in Corca Baiscinn; and Cairbre Riadal, from whom are the Dal Riada.



166 A.D.

Son of Conn of the Hundred Battles (110). This Art, who was the 112th Monarch of Ireland, had three sisters - one of whom Sarad was the wife of Conaire Mac Mogha Laine, the 111th Monarch, by whom she had three sons called the "Three Cairbres," viz. - 1. Cairbre (alias Eochaidh) Riada - a quo "Dalriada," in Ireland, and in Scotland; 2. Cairbre Bascaon; 3. Cairbre Musc, who was the ancestor of O'Falvey, lords of Corcaguiney, etc. Sabina (or Sadhbh), another sister, was the wife of MacNiadh [nia], half King of Munster (of the Sept of Lughaidh, son of Ithe), by whom she had a son named Maccon; and by her second husband Olioll Olum she had nine sons, seven whereof were slain by their half brother Maccon, in the famous battle of Magh Mucroimhe [muccrove], in the county of Galway, where also the Monarch Art himself fell, siding with his brother-in-law Olioll Olum against the said Maccon, after a reign of thirty years, A.D. 195. This Art was married to Maedhbh, Leathdearg, the dau. of Conann Cualann; from this Queen, Rath Maedhbhe, near Tara, obtained its name.



196 A.D.

Son of Maicniadh (MacNiadh) and Sadbh, daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles (110). Stepson of Olioll Olum. Having been thirty years in the sovereignty of Ireland, he fell by the hand of Feircis, son of Coman Eces, after he had been expelled from Teamhair Tara by Cormac, the grandson of Conn.


Fearghus Duibhdeadach

226 A.D.

Son of Iomchadh, son of Fionnchaidh, son of Oghaman, son of Fiatach Finn (103). King over Ireland for the space of a year, when he fell in the battle of Crinna, by Cormac, grandson of Conn, by the hand of Lughaidh Lagha. There fell by him also, in the rout across Breagh, his two brothers, Fearghus the Long Haired and Fearghus the Fiery, who was called Fearghus Caisfhiaclach of the Crooked Teeth.



227 A.D.

Son of Art (112). King Cormac Mac Art called "Ulfhada," because of his long beard. He was the wisest, most learned, and best of any of the Milesian race before him, that ruled the Kingdom. He ordained several good laws; wrote several learned treatises, among which his treatise on "Kingly Government," directed to his son Carbry Liffechar, is extant and extraordinary. He was very magnificent in his housekeeping and attendants, having always one thousand one hundred and fifty persons in his daily retinue constantly attending at his Great Hall at Tara; which was three hundred feet long, thirty cubits high, and fifty cubits broad, with fourteen doors to it. His daily service of plate, flagons, drinking cups of gold, silver., and precious stone, at his table, ordinarily consisted of one hundred and fifty pieces, besides dishes, etc., which were all pure silver or gold. He ordained that ten choice persons should constantly attend him and his successors - Monarchs of Ireland, and never to be absent from him, viz. - 1. A nobleman to be his companion; 2. A judge to deliver and explain the laws of the country in the King's presence upon all occasions; 3. An antiquary or historiographer to declare and preserve the genealogies, acts, and occurrences of the nobility and gentry from time to time as occasion required; 4. A Druid or Magician to offer sacrifice, and presage good or bad omens, as his learning, skill, or knowledge would enable him; 5. A poet to praise or dispraise every one according to his good or bad actions; 6. A physician to administer physic to the king and queen, and to the rest of the (royal) family; 7. A musician to compose music, and sing pleasant sonnets in the King's presence when there-unto disposed; and 8, 9, and 10, three Stewards to govern the King's House in all things appertaining thereunto. This custom was observed by all the succeeding Monarchs down to Brian Boromha [Boru], the 175th Monarch of Ireland, and the 60th down from Cormac, without any alteration only that since they received the Christian Faith they changed the Druid or Magician for a Prelate of the Church. What is besides delivered from antiquity of this great Monarch is, that (which among the truly wise is more valuable than any worldly magnificence or secular glory whatsoever) he was to all mankind very just, and so upright in his actions, judgments, and laws, that God revealed unto him the light of His Faith seven years before his death; and from thenceforward he refused his Druids to worship their idol-gods, and openly professed he would no more worship any but the true God of the Universe, the Immortal and Invisible King of Ages. Whereupon the Druids sought his destruction, which they soon after effected (God permitting it) by their adjurations and ministry of damned spirits choking him as he sat at dinner eating of salmon, some say by a bone of the fish sticking in his throat, A.D. 266, after he had reigned forty years. Of the six sons of Cormac Mac Art, no issue is recorded from any [of them], but from Cairbre-Lifeachar; he had also ten daughters, but there is no account of any of them only two - namely, Grace (or Grania), and Ailbh [alve], who were both successively the wives of the great champion and general of the Irish Militia, Fionn, the son of Cubhall [Coole]. The mother of Cormac MacArt was Eachtach, the dau. of Ulcheatagh. Cormac was married to Eithne Ollamhdha, daughter of Dunlang, son of Eana Niadh; she was fostered by Buiciodh Brughach, in Leinster.


Eochaidh Gonnat

267 A.D.

Son of Fiach, son of Iomchaidh, son of Breasal, son of Siorchaidh, son of Fiatach Finn (103).


Cairbre Liffeachair

268 A.D.

Second son of Cormac (115). Was so called from his having been nursed by the side of the Liffey, the river on which Dublin is built. His mother was Eithne, daughter of Dunlong, King of Leinster. He had three sons - 1. Eochaidh Dubhlen; 2. Eocho; and 3. Fiacha Srabhteine, who was the 120th Monarch of Ireland, and the ancestor of O'Neill, Princes of Tyrone. Fiacha Srabhteine was so called, from his having been fostered at Dunsrabhteine, in Connaught; of which province he was King, before his elevation to the Monarchy. After seventeen years' reign, the Monarch Cairbre Lifeachar was slain at the battle of Gabhra [Gaura], A.D. 284, by Simeon, the son of Ceirb, who came from the south of Leinster to this battle, fought by the Militia of Ireland, who were called the Fiana Erionn (or Fenians), and arising from a quarrel which happened between the; in which the Monarch, taking part with one side against the other, lost his life.


Fothadh Cairptheach

285 A.D.

Son of Lughadh (113). Fothadh Cairptheach was slain by Fothadh Airgtheach.


Fotadh Airgtheach

285 A.D.

Son of Lughadh (113). Fothadh Airgtheach was afterwards slain in the battle of Ollarba, in Magh Line, by Caeilte.


Fiacha Sraibhtine

286 A.D.

Son of Caibre-Lifeacher (117). Married Aoife, daughter of the King of Gall Gaodhal. This Fiacha, after 37 years' reign, was, in the battle of Dubhcomar slain by his nephews, the Three Collas, to make room for Colla Uais, who seized on, and kept, the Monarchy for four years


Colla Uais

323 A.D.

Son of Eochaidh Doimhlen (Dubhlen), grandson of Cormac (115), and nephew of Fiacha Sraibhtine (120). The three Collas being very valliant, warlike, and ambitious princes, combined against their uncle King Fiacha, and aspired to the Monarchy; they collected powerful forces, and being joined by seven catha (or legions) of the Firbolg tribe of Connaught, they fought a fierce battle against the army of the Monarch Fiacha, at Criogh Rois, south of Tailtean, in Bregia, in which the royal army was defeated, and many thousands on both sides, together with King Fiacha himself, were slain. This was called the battle of Dudhcomar, from "Duchcomar,"he chief Druid of King Fiacha, who was slain there; and the place where the battle was fought was near Teltown, between Kells and Kavans, near the river Blackwater in Meath. After gaining the battle, Colla Uais became Monarch and regined nearly four years; when he was deposed by Fiacha's son, Muiredach Tirecah, who then became Monarch of Ireland. The three Collas and their principal chiefs, to the number of three hundred, were expelled from Ireland (hence the name "Colla:" Irish, prohibition; Gr. "koluo," I hinder), and forecd to take refuge among their relatives in Alba; But, through the friendly influence of their grandfather, the King of Alba, and the mediation of the Druids, they were afterwards pardoned by their cousin, then the Irish Monarch, who cordially invited them to return to Ireland.


Muireadhach Tireach

327 A.D.

Son of Fiacha Srabhteine (120). Married Muirion, daughter of Fiachadh, King of Ulster; and having fought and defeated Colla Uais, and banished him and his two brothers into Scotland, regained his father's Throne, which he kept for 30 years.



357 A.D.

Son of Crunn Badhrai (Crunnbhadroi), King of Ulster. After one year in the sovereignty of Ireland, he was slain by Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin.


Eochaidh Muighmheadoin

358 A.D.

Son of Muiredach Tireach (122). King of Meath. In the 8th year of his reign died a natural death at Tara leaving issue four sons. By his first wife Mong Fionn: - I. Brian; II. Fiachra; III. Olioll; IV. Fergus. And, by his second wife, Carthan Cais Dubh (or Carinna), daughter of the Celtic King of Britain, - V. Niall Mór, commonly called "Niall of the Nine Hostages." Mong Fionn was daughter of Fiodhach, and sister of Crimthann, King of Munster, of the Heberian Sept, and successor of Eochaidh in the Monarchy. This Crimthann was poisoned by his sister Mong-Fionn, in hopes that Brian, her eldest son by Eochaidh, would succeed in the Monarchy. To avoid suspicion she herself drank of the same poisoned cup which she presented to her brother; but, notwithstanding that she lost her life by so doing, yet her expectations were not realised, for the said Brian and her other three sons by the said Eochaidh were laid aside (whether out of horror of the mother's inhumanity in poisoning her brother, or otherwise, is not known), and the youngest son of Eochaidh, by Carthan Cais Dubh, was preferred to the Monarchy. I. Brian, from him were descended the Kings, nobility and gentry of Conacht - Tirloch Mór O'Connor, the 121st, and Roderic O'Connor, the 183rd Monarch of Ireland. II. Fiachra's descendants gave their name to Tir-Fiachra ("Tireragh"), co. Sligo, and possessed also parts of co. Mayo. III. Olioll's descendants settled in Sligo - in Tir Oliolla (or Tirerill). This Fiachra had five sons: - 1. Earc Cuilbhuide; 2. Breasal; 3. Conaire; 4. Feredach (or Dathi); and 5. Amhalgaidh.



366 A.D.

Son of Fidhach or Fiodach, son of Daire Cearb. After thirteen years as king over Ireland, he died of a poisonous drink which his own sister gave him.


Niall of the Nine Hostages

379 A.D.

Son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin (124). He was twice married: - his first Queen was Inne, the daughter of Luighdheach, who was the relict of Fiachadh; his second Queen was Roigneach, by whom he had Nos. I., II., III., IV., V., VI., and VII., as given below. This Niall Mór succeeded his Uncle Crimthann. He was a stout, wise, and warlike prince, and fortunate in all his conquests and achievements, and therefore called "Great." He was also called Niall Naoi-Ghiallach or "Niall of the Nine Hostages," from the royal hostages taken from nine several countries by him subdued and made tributary: viz., - 1. Munster, 2. Leinster, 3. Conacht, 4. Ulster, 5. Britain, 6. the Picts, 7. the Dalriads, 8. the Saxons, and 9. the Morini - a people of France, towards Calais and Piccardy; whence he marched with his victorious army of Irish, Scots, Picts, and Britons, further into France, in order to aid the Celtic natives in expelling the Roman Eagles, and thus to conquer that portion of the Roman Empire; and, encamping on the river Leor (now called Lianne), was, as he sat by the river side, treacherously assassinated by Eocha, son of Enna Cinsalach, king of Leinster, in revenge of a former "wrong" by him received from the said Niall. The spot on the Leor (not "Loire") where this Monarch was murdered is still called the "Ford of Niall," near Boulogne-sur-mer. It was in the ninth year of his reign that St. Patrick was first brought into Ireland, at the age of 16 years, among two hundred children brought by the Irish Army out of Little Brittany (called also Armorica), in France. Niall Mór was the first that gave the name of Scotia Minor to "Scotland," and ordained it to be ever after so called; until then it went by the name of "Alba." Niall had twelve sons: - I. Eoghan; II. Laeghaire (or Leary), the 128th Monarch, in the 4th year of whose reign St. Patrick, the second time, came into Ireland to plant the Christian Faith, A.D. 432; III. Conall Crimthann, ancestor of O'Melaghlin, Kings of Meath; IV. Conall Gulban, ancestor of O'Donnell (princes, lords, and earls of the territory of Tirconnell), and of O'Boyle, O'Dogherty, O'Gallagher, etc.; V. Fiacha, from whom the territory from Birr to the Hill of Uisneach in Media Hibernioe (or Meath) is called "Cineal Fiacha," and from him MacGeoghagan, lords of that territory, O'Molloy, O'Donechar, Donaher (or Dooner), etc., derive their pedigree; VI. Main, whose patrimony was all the tract of land from Lochree to Loch Annin, near Mullingar, and from whom are descended Fox (lords of the Muintir Tagan territory), MacGawley, O'Dugan, O'Mulchonry (the princes antiquaries of Ireland), O'Henergy, etc.; VII. Cairbre, ancestor of OFlanagan, of Tua Ratha, "Muintir Cathalan" (or Cahill) etc.; VIII. Fergus (a quo "Cineal Fergusa" or Ferguson), ancestor of O'Hagan, etc.; IX. Enna; X. Aongus or Æneas; XI. Ualdhearg; and XII. Fergus Altleathan. Of these last four sons we find no issue.



406 A.D.

Son of Fiachra, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin (124). Killed "by a flash of ligthning" on the Alps during a Continental expedition. He was the last pagan King.



428 A.D.

Son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (126). The first Christian King although he may have lapsed back into paganism before he died. He was converted by St Patrick. In his reign Pope Celestinus the First sent Palladius to Ireland, to propagate the faith among the Irish, and he landed in the country of Leinster with a company of twelve men. Nathi, son of Garchu, refused to admit him; but, however, he baptized a few persons in Ireland, and three wooden churches were erected by him, namely, Cell Fhine, Teach Na Romhan, and Domhnach Arta. At Cell Fhine he left his books, and a shrine with the relics of Paul and Peter, and many martyrs besides. He left these four in these churches: Augustinus, Benedictus, Silvester, and Solinus. Palladius, on his returning back to Rome (as he did not receive respect in Ireland), contracted a disease in the country of the Cruithnigh, and died thereof.


Oilioll Molt

459 A.D. 

Son of Dathi (127), son of Fiachra. Slain in the battle of Ocha, by Lughaidh, son of Laeghaire, Muircheartach Mac Earca, Fearghus Cerrbhel, son of Conall Cremththainne, Fiachra, son of Laeghaire, King of Dal Araidhe, and Cremhthann, son of Enna Cennsealach, King of Leinster. It was on this occasion that the Lee and Cairloegh were given to Fiachra as a territorial reward for the battle



479 A.D.

Son of Laeghaire (128). During his reign, Fergus Mor MacEarca moved the throne of the Dal Riada to Scotland. After twenty five years in the sovereignty of Ireland, he was killed at Achadh Farcha, being struck by a flash of lightning, by the miracles of God, on account of the insult which he had offered to St. Patrick.


Muircheartach Mór Mac Earca

504 A.D.

Son of Muireadhach. Reigned 24 years; and died naturally in his bed, which was rare among the Irish Monarchs in those days; but others say he was burned in a house after being "drowned in wine" (meaning that he was under the influence of drink) on All-Halontide (or All-Hallow) Eve. Married Duinseach, daughter of Duach Teangabha, King of Conacht. He had issue - I. Donal Ilchealgach; II. Fergus, who became the 135th Monarch; III. Baodan (or Boetanus), who was the 137th Monarch of Ireland, and was the father of Lochan Dilmhain, a quo Dillon, according to some genealogists; IV. Colman Rimidh, the 142nd Monarch; V. Néiline; and VI. Scanlan.


Tuathal Maelgarbh

528 A.D.

Son of Cormac Caech (Caoch), son of Cairbre, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (126). Slain, at Greallach Eillte, by Maelmor, son of Airgeadan, who was the tutor of Diarmaid mac Cearbhaill; and Maelmor fell in revenge of it thereof immediately.



539 A.D.

Son of Fearghus Ceirrbheoil, son of Conall Creamhthaine, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (126). The last Ard Rí to sit at Teamhair (Tara) as it was cursed by St Rhodanus and St Colum Cille / Columba when Diarmuid broke the Right of Santuary. After Diarmuid "each Ard Rí dwelt in his own ancestral territory, at Aileach in the north and Dún-na-Sciath (in Midhe)" or in the case of Brian Bórú - Ceann Coradh in Dál gCais.



559 A.D.

Joint rule by the two sons of Muircheartach (131). These princes were obliged to make war on the people of Leinster; fought the memorable battle of Gabhrah-Liffé, where four hundred of the nobility and gentry of that province were slain, together with the greater part of the army. In this reign Dioman Mac Muireadhach, who governed Ulster ten years, was killed by Bachlachuibh. Donal and Fergus both died of "the plague," in one day.





562 A.D.

Joint rule by Eochaidh, son of Domhnall (134) and Baedan, son of Muircheartach (131)





564 A.D.

Son of Sedna, son of Fearghus Ceannfhoda, son of Conall Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (126).



567 A.D.

Son of Ninnidh, son of Fearghus Ceannfhoda, son of Conall Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (126).


Aedh II

568 A.D.

Son of Ainmire (138). Granted Dál Riada independence from Ireland at the Convention of Druim Ceat in what is modern day county Derry. Dál Riada subsequently went on to dominate Scotland but it wasn't until 843 that Cionaodh Mac Ailpín unified the Dál Riada and Pictish crowns becoming the first King of Alba (Scotland).


Aedh Slaine

595 A.D.

Joint rule by Aedh Slaine, son of Diarmaid (133) and Colman Rimidh, son of Baedan (139)


Colman Rimidh


Aedh Uairidhnach

601 A.D.

Son of Domhnall Ilchealgach (134).



608 A.D.

Son of Aedh (140).


Suibhne Meann

611 A.D.

Son of Fiachna, son of Fearadhach, son of Muircheartach (131).



624 A.D.

Son of Aedh (140).



640 A.D.

Sons of Maelcobha (144). Ruled jointly


Conall Cael

640 A.D.



657 A.D.

Joint rule by two sons of Aedh Slaine (141)





665 A.D.

Son of Blathmac (150).



670 A.D.

Son of Blathmac (150).


Finnachta Fleadhach

674 A.D.

Son of Dunchadh, King of Ulidia, son of Aedh Slaine (141).



694 A.D.

Son of Aenghus macDomnail O'Neill, son of Domhnall, son of Aodh (140).


Congal of Ceann Maghair

702 A.D.

Son of Fearghus of Fanaid



709 A.D.

Son of Maelduin, son of Maelfithrigh, son of Aodh Uairidhnach (143). Was slain by Moroch, King of Leinster. Married Aithiochta, daughter of Cein O'Connor, King of Conacht. This Feargal had four sons: I. Niall Frassach; II. Connor (or Conchobhar), who was ancestor of O'Cahan; III. Hugh Allan (or Aodh Olann), the 160th Monarch, and ancestor of O'Brian, of Ulster; and IV. Colca, a quo Culkin.



719 A.D.

Son of Niall, son of Cearnach Sotal, son of Diarmid (149).



720 A.D.

Son of Irgalach, son of Conaing Cuirri, son of Conghal, son of Aedh Slaine (141).



723 A.D.

Son of Loingseach (154).


Aedh Allan

730 A.D.

Son of Fearghal (156).



739 A.D.

Son of Murchadh, son of Diarmaid, son of Airmeadhach Caoch, son of Conall Guithbinn, son of Suibhne Meann, son of Colman Mor, son of Diarmaid (133).


Niall Frosach

759 A.D.

Son of Fearghal (156). Married Bridget, daughter of Orca, son of Carrthone; was called "frassach" from certain miraculous showers that fell in his time (a shower of honey, a shower of money, and a shower of blood). After seven years' reign, retired to St. Columb's Monastery at Hye, in Scotland, A.D. 765, where he died in A.D. 773; issue: Aodh Fearcar, and Aodh Ordnigh.



766 A.D.

Son of Domhnall (161).


Aedh Oirdnidhe

793 A.D.

Son of Niall Frosach (162). After 25 years' reign, was slain in the battle of Fearta. Was married to Meadhbh, daughter of Ionrachtach, King of Durlus. In his reign prodigious thunder and lightning occurred, which killed many men, women, and children all over the Kingdom, particularly in a nook of the country between Corcavaskin and the sea in Munster, by which one thousand and ten persons were destroyed. In his reign occurred many prodigies - the forerunner of the Danish Invasion, which soon after followed. This Monarch had four sons: I. Naill Caille; II. Maoldoon, a quo "Siol Muldoon;" III. Fogartach, ancestor of Muintir Cionaodh or Kenny; and IV. Blathmac.



818 A.D.

Son of Donnchadh (163).


Niall Caille

832 A.D.

Son of Aedh Oirdnidhe (164). He fought many battles with the Danes and Norwegians, in most of which although the Danes were worsted, yet the continual supplies pouring unto them made them very formidable; so much so that in this reign they took and fortified Dublin and other strong places upon the sea-coasts. Married Gormfhliath, daughter of Donogh, son of Donal. This Monarch had five sons: I. Aodh Finnliath; II. Dubhionracht, a quo O'Dubhionrachta; III. Aongus; IV. Flahertach, ancestor of O'Hualairg or Mac Ualairg, anglicised Mac Golderick, Goderick, Golding, Goulding, Waller, etc.; V. Braon, a quo Clan Braoin of Mogh Ithe (Moy Ith).


(Malachy I)

845 A.D.

Son of Maelruanaidh, son of Donnchadh (163). Maoilsheachlainn I who, as King of Midhe, killed the hated Viking Thorgils (who had conquered much of Ireland at the time.) When he was Ard Rí he "vigorously attacked the invaders and was ably seconded by some of the provincial kings. The Danes were defeated in Westmeath, losing 700 in battle; in Tipperary they lost 240; at Balrothery, 200; at Rathmullen, near Duleek, 300; they were also defeated at Farragh............ they were much weakened and discouraged by their losses and abandoned several of their conquests."


Aedh Finnliath

861 A.D.

Son of Niall Caille (166). Reigned for sixteen years, during which time he fought and defeated the Danes in several battles and was worsted in others; he died at Drom-Enesclann. This Aodh married Maolmare or Mary, daughter of Keneth, the son of Alpin - both Kings of Scotland. He had two sons: I. Niall Glundubh; and II. Donal, who was King of Aileach, and ancestor of the family of MacLaughlin, some of whom were Monarchs of Ireland; and of O'Donnelly, whose chief was, A.D. 1177, slain at Down by Sir John de Courcey, first "Earl of Ulster."


Flann Sinna

877 A.D.

Son of Maelsechlainn (167).


Niall Glundubh

915 A.D.

Son of Aedh Finnliath (168). Grandson of Kenneth MacAlpin of Scotland. He had many conflicts with the Danes, in which, generally, he was victorious. At length, making up a great army, in order to besiege Dublin, a great battle was fought between them, wherein the Monarch lost his life, and after great slaughter on both sides, his army was routed. He revived the great Fair at Tailtean. From this Monarch the sirname O'Neill or "Clan-na-Neil," are derived. Niall Glundubh left issue: I. Muriartach na-Cochall, Prince of Ulster, who left no issue; and II. Murchertach.



918 A.D.

Son of Flann Sinna (169).


Conghalach III

942 A.D.

Son of Maelmithigh, son of Flanagan, son of Ceallach, son of Conaing, son of Conghal, decendant of Aedh Slaine (141). Conghalach's mother was Muire, daughter of Kenneth Mac Alpin, King of Scotland. Defeated the Vikings in 944 at Dublin and who in 948 inflicted heavy loss on the them "Blacar being among the slain". He defeated them again at Muine Breacain but was eventually killed in battle with the Vikings.



955 A.D.

Son of Muircheartach of the Leather Cloaks, son of Niall Glundubh (170). Died at Armagh, after 24 years' reign. During his long reign we find but little progress by him (made) against the encroaching Danes; he wholly bent his arms against his subjects; preying, burning, and slaughtering the people of Conacht, whether deservedly or otherwise we know not, but we know it was no reasonable time for them to fall foul upon one another, while their common enemy was victoriously triumphing over them both.


Maelseachlainn Mor
(Malachy II)

979 A.D.

Son of Domhnall, son of Donnchadh (171). The last Ard Rí of the Uí Néill Dynasty and who was also one of it's best. Maoilsheachlainn when "announcing his accession, issued a noble proclaimation "Let all the Irish who are suffering servitude in the land of the stranger return home to their respective houses and enjoy themselves in gladness and in peace" To this end he went about smashing the power of the Vikings- "The very year he became Ard Rí he defeated them at Tara, were Regnall, son of Olaf, King of Dublin was killed......... he followed up his successes at Tara by attacking and capturing the city of Dublin." However in 988 he was forced to recognise Brian (Bórú) as King of Leath Mhogha (Southern half of Ireland). By that stage Brian had become supreme ruler of Munster and Leinster. But Brian did not stop there and when the Ulster Kings refused to support Maoilsheachlainn he was forced to acknowledge Brian as Ard Rí in 1002. When Brian Bórú was killed at Clontarf in 1014 he re-assumed the High Kingship and shortly before his death "he entered a lonely retreat- Cro-Innis........ where he spent his last years in penance and mortification. "


Brian Boroimhe [Boru]

1002 A.D.

Son of Ceinneidigh, King of Thomond), son of Lorcan macCorc, son of Corc, son of Annluan, son of Mathgamhain, son of Toirrdhealbach, son of Cathal, son of Aodh Caomh, son of Conall, son of Eochaidh Bailldhearg, son of Farthann Fionn, son of Blod, son of Cas, son of Conall Eachluaith, son of Lughaidh Meann, son of Cas, son of Conall Eachluaith, son of Lughaidh Meann, son of Aonghus Tireach, son of Fear Corb, son of Mogh Corb, son of Cormac Cas, son of Oilill Olum. Fell by the hand of Brodar, the Danish admiral, at the Battle of Clontarf, on Good Friday, the 23rd April, 1014, in the 88th year of his age. This Brian ("Brian:" Irish, very great strength), was the ancestor of O'Brien, Kings of Thomond. He had eleven brothers, of whom only four left issue, viz. - I. Mahoun, the eldest brother, who was King of Munster, before Brian, and from whom sprang many families. II. Donchuan, who was the ancestor of, among other families, Eustace, O'Kennedy, O'Regan, (of Thomond), O'Kelleher, O'Beollan (or "Boland" ), O'Casey, Power, Twomey, etc. III. Eichtigern (a quo Ahearne, Hearne, Heron), who was ancestor of MacCraith, (or MacGrath), of Thomond, etc. IV. Anluan, who was the ancestor of Quirk, etc. Brian Boroimhe was four times married; his first wife was Mór (more), daughter of Flan O'Hyne, Prince of Hy-Fiachra Aidhne, in Galway, by whom he had three sons of whom Murrough, who fell at the Battle of Clontarf, was one. Brian was secondly married to Eachraidh, daughter of Cearbhall, son of Olioll Fionn, and had: 1. Teige 2. Donal, who distinguished himself at Clontarf, and was slain by the Siol Murray in a battle fought by the Dalcassians against the Conacians. His third wife was Gormliath, the "Kormloda" of Icelandic history; sister of Maolmora, King of Leinster: and relict of Aulaf, the Danish King of Dublin, to whom she bore the celebrated Sitric, who succeeded his father as King of the Danes of Dublin. By Gormliath Brian had Donogh, the 176th Monarch of Ireland, who was the ancestor of Plunkett, and of the O'Briens of Coonagh, in Limerick, and of Aherlow, in Tipperary; and a daughter Sabh, who married Cian by whom she had Mathgabhuin, the founder of the family of O'Mahony, in the county Cork. Brian's fourth wife was Dubhcobhla, who d. s. p. 1009; she was daughter of Cathal O'Connor, King of Connaught.


Maelseachlainn Mor
(Malachy II)

1014 A.D.

Upon the death of Brian he was restored to the kingship that he had abdicated.


Corcran Claireach

1022 A.D.

Joint rule.


Conn O Lochlain



1024 A.D.

Son of Brian Boru (173) and Gormflaeth ingen Murchada MacFinn. Only two of Brian Bórú's sons survived the battle of Clontarf; Donnchadh and Tadhg. However in 1023 Donnchadh had Tadhg killed and he became King of Mumhain and in 1024 he also became Ard Rí. Donnchadh's reign is described here: "He enacted salutory laws, sternly repressed robbery, caused the Sabbath to be observed". In his old age he went on a pilgrimage to Rome and died there.



1042 A.D.

Son of Donnchad Mael na mBo.


Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain

1055 A.D.

Son of Teig O'Brien, who was the second son of Brian Boru (173). Under the guardianship of Diarmuid, King of Laighin, Toirdealbach Ó Briain, son of Tadhg, son of Brian (175), became Ard Rí. When he died "he was the foremost in power and influence among the Irish kings, in ability and energy, both in peace and war, not unworthy of the grandson of Brian. Abroad also his fame was great. By Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, who corresponded with him, he is styled the magnificent King of Ireland, and he congradulated the people of Ireland that God had given them such a king."


Domhnall Mac Lochlainn

1083 A.D.

Son of Ardgar macLochlain, King of Ailech.


Muircheartach Ua Briain

1101 A.D.

Son of Toirdhealbhach (178). A struggle between the Ó Briain and Ó Lochlainn clans for the High Kingship of Ireland ensued. However Muircheartach was not easily subdued "he was equally ambitious and equally powerful as Domhnall, and between the two chiefs- both men of the highest capacity- a life long struggle, fierce, bitter, and persistent, and which, at the close of their lives, was undecided still."


Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair

1106 A.D.

Son of Ruaidri na Saide Buide mac Aeda Gai, King of Connaught, son of Aed in Gai Bernaig. He sternly punished injustice..... he was liberal to the monasteries, especially to Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis); he set up a mint and coined money; he built bridges over the Shannon; the Abbey of Cong, the picturesque ruins of which still stand on the Corrib, was built and endowed by him, and the stone cross of Tuam and the processional cross of Cong show that he encouraged Irish art. No King since Brian Bórú had such influence or power. Sometimes he has been called Turlogh the Great (Toirdealbach Mór) and if we remember the age in which he lived and compare him with his contemporaries, we may allow that he has some title to the name. In 1156 Toirdealbach Mór died and was buried beneath the High Altar of St. Ciarán at Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis).


Muirchertach macNéill macLochlainn

1156 A.D.

Son of Niall, son of Domnall (179).


Ruaidri Ua Conchobair

1166 A.D.

Son of Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair (181). The native chiefs no longer looked to Tirowen for a leader and with singular unanimity, they agreed to give to Roderick O'Connor (Ruaidhrí Ó Conchubhair) the hostages which he sought. Tirconnell, Brefny, Meath and the Dublin Danes submitted to him and at Dublin (Duibhlinn), whither he had marched, Roderick (Ruaidhrí) was inaugurated King, "as honourably as any King of the Gael was ever inaugurated." Ossory, and Leinster and all Munster at once recognised him". During his rule "he convoked at Athboy (1167) a great council of princes and ecclesiastics, where many useful regulations for the government of the entire country were made." He also celebrated the last Fair of Tailteann in 1168 at which 13,000 horsemen attended. However Ruaidhrí Ó Conchubhair was a bad choice as Ard Rí and when the deposed King of Laighin (Leinster), Diarmuid Mac Murchadha / Diarmuid na nGall (Dermot Mac Murrough), sought Anglo-Norman aid to regain his kingdom from Murchadh na nGael, Ruaidhrí proved himself to be an "imbecile and a coward."




Monarchy ceded to Henry II of England.


Éadbhard I


In 1315 Edward Bruce (Eideard de Brus), brother of Robert the King of Scotland (Roibeirt de Brus), was invited to Ireland by the King of Ulster Domhnall Ó Néill in the hope that he would drive the English invaders out of Ireland as his brother had done in Scotland. In 1316 he was crowned King of Ireland under the title of Éadbhard I or Edward I. "He set up his Headquarters at Dundalk (Dún Dealgan) and there on the 1st of May 1316, in the presence of the Scotch and Irish, he was crowned King of Ireland". After early successes at Connor, Cells and Arscoll (near Athy in county Kildare) de Brus failed to capture Dublin or Limerick and was forced back north where he was killed at the Battle of Faughart in 1318 never having ruled the entire country. "While the battle raged , a powerful English knight, Sir John de Maupas, rushed into the Scottish ranks, sought out Edward Bruce (de Brus) with whom he engaged in single combat, and both fell mortally wounded."